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Low Frequency Transparency Analyses of Passivity-based Approaches for Two–channel Teleoperation Architectures

Riaz Uddin*, Muhammad Affan, Asad Arfeen, Jeha Ryu, and Saad Ahmed Qazi
International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, pp.220-231, 2022

Abstract : The paper presents the comprehensive transparency analyses in terms of low frequency approximation of perceived impedance for the notable passivity-based approaches such as wave variable (WV), time domain passivity observer and control (TDPC), energy-bounding approach (EBA) and predictive energy-bounding approach (Predictive-EBA). Firstly, low frequency models of perceived impedance for the aforesaid approaches are developed and then, analyzed and discussed in detail. Secondly, these approaches are compared with each other to study the transparency in free motion and contact mode for prominent two-channel (2C) force feedback architectures namely, position error-based force reflection (PE) and direct force sensing (PF). Lastly, the detailed analyses and comparisons among WV, TDPC, EBA and Predictive-EBA are done both qualitatively and quantitatively, followed by the important discussions and conclusions.

Keyword : "Force feedback, haptics, passivity, teleoperation architectures, time delay, transparency. "

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